The Navy has been using steam for more than 50 years to launch aircraft from carriers. The launcher commodity encompasses not only catapults, but also the catapult control stations and jet blast deflectors.
The Integrated Catapult Control System (ICCS), or “bubble,” is a station located in carrier flight decks. It combines current remote stations to provide intercommunication during each aircraft launch.
Jet Blast Deflectors (JBD) are hydraulic-controlled panels on carrier flight decks designed to divert hot aircraft exhaust during launches. The panels are raised in preparation for takeoff, protecting the flight deck and pending aircraft from the hot aircraft exhaust.
- Steam catapults
- Jet Blast Deflectors (JBD)
- Integrated Catapult Control Stations (ICCS)